Third countries

Countries on the path to EU accession are the first priority for the agency’s external cooperation. The group of countries consist of the closest EU neighbours in the Western Balkans, Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia. These are crucial partners for joint operational activities along the Western Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean migratory routes, as well as when addressing the consequences of the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

Pre-accession countries


Türkiye remains an important part of the Eastern Mediterranean migratory route, and a neighbour of the EU, therefore a priority for the agency.

Third countries

Southern Neighbourhood (North Africa and the Levant)

As direct neighbours and key countries of origin and transit for irregular migration, the countries in North Africa and the Levant are a priority for Frontex. Frontex is investing into dialogue and trust-building measures that may lead to mutually beneficial operational cooperation in the future, supporting measures along the key migratory routes and targeting cross border crime, and terrorism related threats across the Mediterranean.

West Africa

Cooperation with West African region is based on mutual areas of interest, including return, combatting trafficking in human beings and drug trafficking. Frontex Liaison Officers have been deployed to Niger and to Senegal. The mandate of the FLO in Senegal has been expanded to also cover Mauritania and the Gambia. Existing working arrangements with Nigeria and Cape Verde help strengthen the cooperation with the region, with negotiations on new working arrangements currently being negotiated with Niger, Mauritania and Senegal.

Horn of Africa

The Horn of Africa is an important region of origin, making cooperation on returns with the countries of the region a priority, which Frontex is focusing on strengthening/developing. Furthermore, the agency also seeks synergies with regional players to  collaborate in the fight against irregular migration, migrant smuggling and trafficking in human beings.

Silk Route Countries

While the entire region is important, the Agency is particularly focusing on strengthening cooperation with Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iraq as the main countries of origin and/or transit of illegal immigration to the EU.  The Agency is also taking part in the EU-funded Border Management Programme in Central Asia, within which it assists in organising various workshops and other relevant events.

To facilitate communication with partner countries, and based on the existing Management Board mandate, Frontex will step up its efforts to deploy a FLO in the region.

Latin America

Latin America remains an important region for cooperation on cross-border crime, particularly on combatting drug trafficking, migrant smuggling and trafficking in human beings. Most exchanges between the region and the Agency are taking place via the EMPACT platform as well as via EU funded capacity building projects, implemented by EU and international partners.

Armenia and Azerbaijan

As part of the Eastern Partnership, Armenia and Azerbaijan are important countries within the external dimension of the Agency. With both countries having concluded working arrangements with Frontex, the Agency will continue implementing commitments in the areas of mutual interest, such as on risk analysis and return.